Systole is the first stage of heart failure with isolated systolic hypertension. Systole develops when the heart relaxes to a greater degree than normal during periods of physical stress, such as rapid walking or jogging. The increased workload minimizes the efficiency of the cardiac muscles, leading to the failure of the heart muscle. This is the pathophysiological basis of the rapid progression of this condition in the elderly.
Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly generally follows coronary heart disease (CVD) therapy. Cardiovascular specialists evaluate the patient’s medical history and other symptoms in order to establish the underlying cause of the hypertension. In many patients, the antihypertensive therapy is advised as the initial step in the treatment of this condition. The first step is usually an antihypertensive drug, which may be taken for the rest of your life in order to prevent future episodes of heart attack. However, even after treatment of cardiovascular disease, the risk of heart attacks still remain high in most elderly individuals.
Systole trials are particularly useful in determining the effectiveness of new drugs. The randomization procedure is carried out on a placebo. The use of placebos in clinical trials has generated a lot of controversy over the years. Critics argue that the placebo effect may be overstated and the results of these trials may therefore be misleading.
The classic method of measurement of systolic target pressure (TSP) is the sitting pulse rate (SVR). For individuals with normal blood pressure levels, a resting heart rate (HRT) of 120 beats/min is considered to be the ideal systolic target. For people with elevated blood pressure, an HRT of 140 beats/min is more desirable. Systolic target pressure is generally expressed as a percentage of maximum systolic blood pressure (SMBP), the highest value of which is used for screening purposes.
In many cases, elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension cannot follow standard treatment strategies. CCBS (calcium channel blockers) is one of the few treatment regimens that can be tailored to reduce the burden of medication in the elderly. In fact, management strategies can include both lifestyle changes and medication. It has been found that patients who lose weight, quit smoking, increase their physical activity, and avoid or decrease their consumption of alcohol all have favorable effects on reducing their CCBS. Smoking cessation and weight loss both reduce the symptoms of cardiovascular disease in the elderly.
Weight gain, cessation of smoking, and increased physical activity all improve the quality of life, lower the blood pressure, and reduce the odds of adverse events such as heart failure and stroke. Cardiovascular rehabilitation therapy (CBT) has been found to be particularly effective in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. CBT involves an interactive program of medical, mental, and behavioral counseling, administered by a trained professional. Several studies have reported that cognitive behavioral therapy is as effective as traditional cardiovascular treatment in controlling acute coronary syndromes and other cardiac disorders. Furthermore, CBT has been found to be more effective than medications and surgical procedures in the long term.
Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension is complicated by the lack of known mechanisms or biological pathways that are associated with systole and coronary heart disease. Though it is unknown what causes elevated blood pressure, it is known that lifestyle factors, including diet, exercise, and use of prescription drugs, are all important in determining cardiovascular risk. In addition, it has been hypothesized that there is a genetic component to cardiovascular risk; however, no definitive evidence regarding this hypothesis exists. Therefore, treatment of systolic hypertension should not only focus on improving lifestyle conditions, but also should address current lifestyle choices that may lead to future health complications.
Because coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common outcome of systolic hypertension, treatment of this medical condition should also include measures aimed at reducing overall arterial stiffness. The effectiveness of targeted exercise has been shown to be as successful in controlling hypertension as treatment of coronary artery disease. Exercise has also been found to improve blood flow in the brain, reducing peripheral arterial stiffness and improving cerebral oxygenation in patients with mild or severe stenosis. Thus, the combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and physical therapy has been shown to be extremely effective in the treatment of elderly patients with isolated SYST extension. The increased longevity of patients who have had cardiovascular interventions has provided researchers with opportunities to study the effect of these interventions over time and find novel means of preventing cardiovascular disease. This information provides patients with an improved quality of life and improves the survival rate of those with isolated systolic hypertension.