Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease in which glucose builds up in the blood. This high blood sugar level can cause both acute and chronic health complications. The acute problems may include fatigue, loss of appetite, and impaired vision. Chronic complications can be more serious and include kidney failure, nerve damage, and heart disease.
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus include increased thirst and urination, lack of energy, and fatigue. Some patients also experience bacterial or fungal infections and have delayed wound healing. In addition, they experience blurred vision and numbness. More than one-third of people with diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy at some point in their lives.
Diagnosis of diabetes can be based on several tests. One test, called the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, uses the concentration of glucose in a blood sample taken after a fast. A level of more than 126 mg/dL is consistent with diabetes.
Treatment of diabetes is a combination of insulin or oral medicines. Some people require both types of medication. They must also monitor their blood sugar regularly. Their health care provider will advise them on how often to do this. Blood pressure and cholesterol should also be monitored on a regular basis. Diabetics should also undergo regular screenings for cardiovascular diseases.
A subset of type II diabetes sufferers have circulating antibodies that target the antigens present in the islet cells. These antibodies primarily attack glutamic acid decarboxylase.